cmath – mathematical functions for complex numbers

    This module implements a subset of the corresponding CPython module, as described below. For more information, please refer to the original CPython documentation: cmath.

    The cmath module provides some basic mathematical functions for dealing with complex numbers.

    Function

    cos

    cmath.cos(z)
    

    Returns the cosine of z.

    exp

    cmath.exp(z)
    

    Returns the exponent of z.

    log

    cmath.log(z)
    

    Returns the natural logarithm of z. The branch cuts along the negative real axis.

    log10

    cmath.log10(z)
    

    Returns the base 10 logarithm of z. The branch cuts along the negative real axis.

    phase

    cmath.phase(z)
    

    Returns the phase, range (-pi, +pi) of the number "z".

    polar

    cmath.polar(z)
    

    Return the polar form of z as a tuple.

    rect

    cmath.rect(r, phi)
    

    Returns the complex number of the modulus r and the phase phi.

    sin

    cmath.sin(z)
    

    Returns the sine of z.

    sqrt

    cmath.sqrt(z)
    

    Returns the square root of z.

    Constants

    cmath.e

    The basis of natural logarithm

    cmath.pi

    Ratio of circumference to diameter